Possible safety and health hazards in the use of alkaline secondary cells and batteries - Guide to equipment manufacturers and users
The purpose of this technical report is to acquaint equipment and system application engineers with the technical aspects of possible hazards. It is the designer’s responsibility to interpret this information into the application design and the user instructions. In the case of single cells or batteries sold directly by the manufacturer to the end-user, the manufacturer should supply this information. -- This technical report outlines the fundamental conditions necessary for the creation of each hazard. It includes identification and characterization of the possible hazards inherent in the application, use and abuse of nickel-cadmium cells and batteries. It also includes examples for appliance design which minimize these hazards. Additionally, it presents some typical but nonexhaustive examples of misuse that may precipitate, or actions which mitigate, the hazard. -- The possible hazards that are the subject of this report are: a) hydrogen explosion; b) pressure rupture; c) chemical burns (electrolyte); d) high power levels (shorting, fire); e) high voltage levels (shock); f) thermal runaway; g) disposal; h) miscellaneous. -- These hazards are considered first in general, and then in terms of conditions specific for sealed cells and for vented cells.